Bungee jumping is a relatively new sport. The jump itself is related to the ritualistic practices of "land divers" from the Pentecost Island in the Pacific Archipelago of Vanuatu. These men demonstrated their courage by jumping off cliffs while attached to vines; they do this in hope of a plentiful harvest of yams. In 1979, The Oxford University Dangerous Sports Club jumped off a bridge themselves after being inspired by a film about the vine jumpers. During the 1980's, the sport flourished in New Zealand and France and was brought into the United States by John and Peter Kockelman of California. In the early 1990's facilities sprang up all over the country with cranes, towers, and hot-air balloons serving as platforms.